在网上买了Cambridge Enlish教材，剑桥雅思4 What Do Whales Feel 翻译，开始看Cambridge Enlish这些教材时好多单词不认识，只好在手机上安装app一个一个单词的查，笔者开始看这个教材时没有按照顺序看，拿着剑桥雅思4书就开始了；但看到阅读时，一是太长，二是好多单词不认识，于是为了加深理解，将教材自已用google翻译出来放这，帮助有需要的人。
剑桥雅思4 What Do Whales Feel 翻译-Test 1-Passage 2
What Do Whales Feel 翻译
剑桥雅思4 Test 1-Passage 2 第二篇文章的主题为鲸鱼和海豚的各种感官。文章有6个段落，前三段分别介绍鲸鱼和海豚的嗅觉、味觉、触觉、以及视觉，第四段和第五段分析眼睛位置、栖息地与视力的关系，最后一段再次回到它们的听觉上。以下是What Do Whales Feel 翻译-Test 1-Passage 2中文翻译对照：
Some of the senses that we and other terrestrial mammals take for granted are either reduced or absent in cetaceans or fail to function well in water. For example, it appears from their brain structure that toothed species are unable to smell. Baleen species, on the other hand, appear to have some related brain structures but it is not known whether these are functional. It has been speculated that, as the blowholes evolved and migrated to the top of the head, the neural pathways serving sense of smell may have been nearly all sacrificed. Similarly, although at least some cetaceans have taste buds, the nerves serving these have degenerated or are rudimentary.
The sense of touch has sometimes been described as weak too, but this view is probably mistaken. Trainers of captive dolphins and small whales often remark on their animals’ responsiveness to being touched or rubbed, and both captive and free-ranging cetacean individuals of all species (particularly adults and calves, or members of the same subgroup) appear to make frequent contact. This contact may help to maintain order within a group, and stroking or touching are part of the courtship ritual in most species. The area around the blowhole is also particularly sensitive and captive animals often object strongly to being touched there.
The sense of vision is developed to different degrees in different species. Baleen species studied at close quarters underwater – specifically a grey whale calf in captivity for a year, and free-ranging right whales and humpback whales studied and filmed off Argentina and Hawaii – have obviously tracked objects with vision underwater, and they can apparently see moderately well both in water and in air. However, the position of the eyes so restricts the field of vision in baleen whales that they probably do not have stereoscopic vision.
视觉在不同物种中发展程度不同。 须鲸物种在水下近距离研究——特别是一头被圈养了一年的灰鲸幼崽，以及在阿根廷和夏威夷附近研究和拍摄的自由放养露脊鲸和座头鲸——显然已经在水下用视觉追踪物体，它们显然可以适度地看到 在水中和空气中都很好。 然而，眼睛的位置限制了须鲸的视野，以至于它们可能没有立体视觉。
On the other hand, the position of the eyes in most dolphins and porpoises suggests that they have stereoscopic vision forward and downward. Eye position in freshwater dolphins, which often swim on their side or upside down while feeding, suggests that what vision they have is stereoscopic forward and upward. By comparison, the bottlenose dolphin has extremely keen vision in water. Judging from the way it watches and tracks airborne flying fish, it can apparently see fairly well through the air-water interface as well. And although preliminary experimental evidence suggests that their in-air vision is poor, the accuracy with which dolphins leap high to take small fish out of a trainer’s hand provides anecdotal evidence to the contrary.
另一方面，大多数海豚和鼠海豚的眼睛位置表明它们具有向前和向下的立体视觉。 淡水海豚的眼睛位置，在喂食时经常侧着或倒着游泳，这表明它们的视觉是立体的向前和向上的。 相比之下，宽吻海豚在水中的视力极为敏锐。 从它观察和跟踪空中飞鱼的方式来看，它显然可以通过气水界面看到相当不错的东西。 尽管初步的实验证据表明它们的空中视力很差，但海豚高高跃起将小鱼从训练者手中夺走的准确性提供了相反的轶事证据。
Such variation can no doubt be explained with reference to the habitats in which individual species have developed. For example, vision is obviously more useful to species inhabiting clear open waters than to those living in turbid rivers and flooded plains. The South American boutu and Chinese beiji, for instance, appear to have very limited vision, and the Indian susus are blind, their eyes reduced to slits that probably allow them to sense only the direction and intensity of light.
Although the senses of taste and smell appear to have deteriorated, and vision in water appears to be uncertain, such weaknesses are more than compensated for by cetaceans’ well-developed acoustic sense. Most species are highly vocal, although they vary in the range of sounds they produce, and many forage for food using echolocation. Large baleen whales primarily use the lower frequencies and are often limited in their repertoire. Notable exceptions are the nearly song-like choruses of bowhead whales in summer and the complex, haunting utterances of the humpback whales. Toothed species in general employ more of the frequency spectrum, and produce a wider variety of sounds, than baleen species (though the sperm whale apparently produces a monotonous series of high-energy clicks and little else). Some of the more complicated sounds are clearly communicative, although what role they may play in the social life and ‘culture’ of cetaceans has been more the subject of wild speculation than of solid science.
echolocation: the perception of objects by means of sound wave echoes.
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