剑桥雅思4 What Do Whales Feel 翻译-Test 1-Passage 2

剑桥雅思4 What Do Whales Feel 翻译-Test 1-Passage 2 第二篇文章的主题为鲸鱼和海豚的各种感官。文章有6个段落,前三段分别介绍鲸鱼和海豚的嗅觉、味觉、触觉、以及视觉,第四段和第五段分析眼睛位置、栖息地与视力的关系。

在网上买了Cambridge Enlish教材,剑桥雅思4 What Do Whales Feel 翻译,开始看Cambridge Enlish这些教材时好多单词不认识,只好在手机上安装app一个一个单词的查,笔者开始看这个教材时没有按照顺序看,拿着剑桥雅思4书就开始了;但看到阅读时,一是太长,二是好多单词不认识,于是为了加深理解,将教材自已用google翻译出来放这,帮助有需要的人。

剑桥雅思4 What Do Whales Feel 翻译-Test 1-Passage 2
剑桥雅思4 What Do Whales Feel 翻译-Test 1-Passage 2

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剑桥雅思4 What Do Whales Feel 翻译-Test 1-Passage 2

What Do Whales Feel 翻译

剑桥雅思4 Test 1-Passage 2 第二篇文章的主题为鲸鱼和海豚的各种感官。文章有6个段落,前三段分别介绍鲸鱼和海豚的嗅觉、味觉、触觉、以及视觉,第四段和第五段分析眼睛位置、栖息地与视力的关系,最后一段再次回到它们的听觉上。以下是剑桥雅思阅读中文翻译 What Do Whales Feel 翻译-Test 1-Passage 2中文翻译对照:

Some of the senses that we and other terrestrial mammals take for granted are either reduced or absent in cetaceans or fail to function well in water. For example, it appears from their brain structure that toothed species are unable to smell. Baleen species, on the other hand, appear to have some related brain structures but it is not known whether these are functional. It has been speculated that, as the blowholes evolved and migrated to the top of the head, the neural pathways serving sense of smell may have been nearly all sacrificed. Similarly, although at least some cetaceans have taste buds, the nerves serving these have degenerated or are rudimentary.

我们和其他陆生哺乳动物认为理所当然的一些感官在鲸目动物中要么减少,要么不存在,要么在水中不能很好地发挥作用。例如,从它们的大脑结构看来,有齿物种无法闻到气味。须鲸物种,在另一方面,似乎有一些相关的大脑结构,但不知道这些是否具有功能性。据推测,随着气孔的进化并迁移到头顶,起到嗅觉作用的神经通路可能几乎全部被牺牲了。同样,尽管一些鲸类具有味蕾,但服务于它们的神经已经退化或十分原始。

The sense of touch has sometimes been described as weak too, but this view is probably mistaken. Trainers of captive dolphins and small whales often remark on their animals’ responsiveness to being touched or rubbed, and both captive and free-ranging cetacean individuals of all species (particularly adults and calves, or members of the same subgroup) appear to make frequent contact. This contact may help to maintain order within a group, and stroking or touching are part of the courtship ritual in most species. The area around the blowhole is also particularly sensitive and captive animals often object strongly to being touched there.

触感有时也被描述为弱,但这种观点可能是错误的。圈养海豚和小鲸的培训师往往提到,他们的动物会对被抚摸或者摩擦做出反应。而无论是圈养还是自由放养的所有鲸类动物个体(特别是成年鲸鱼和幼崽之间,或同一亚种的成员之间)都会频繁接触。这种接触可能有助于维持群体内的秩序,在大多数物种中,抚摸或触摸是求偶仪式的一部分。气孔周围的区域也特别敏感,圈养动物经常强烈反对在那里被触摸。

The sense of vision is developed to different degrees in different species. Baleen species studied at close quarters underwater – specifically a grey whale calf in captivity for a year, and free-ranging right whales and humpback whales studied and filmed off Argentina and Hawaii – have obviously tracked objects with vision underwater, and they can apparently see moderately well both in water and in air. However, the position of the eyes so restricts the field of vision in baleen whales that they probably do not have stereoscopic vision.

视觉在不同物种中发展程度不同。 须鲸物种在水下近距离研究——特别是一头被圈养了一年的灰鲸幼崽,以及在阿根廷和夏威夷附近研究和拍摄的自由放养露脊鲸和座头鲸——显然已经在水下用视觉追踪物体,它们显然可以适度地看到 在水中和空气中都很好。 然而,眼睛的位置限制了须鲸的视野,以至于它们可能没有立体视觉。

On the other hand, the position of the eyes in most dolphins and porpoises suggests that they have stereoscopic vision forward and downward. Eye position in freshwater dolphins, which often swim on their side or upside down while feeding, suggests that what vision they have is stereoscopic forward and upward. By comparison, the bottlenose dolphin has extremely keen vision in water. Judging from the way it watches and tracks airborne flying fish, it can apparently see fairly well through the air-water interface as well. And although preliminary experimental evidence suggests that their in-air vision is poor, the accuracy with which dolphins leap high to take small fish out of a trainer’s hand provides anecdotal evidence to the contrary.

另一方面,大多数海豚和鼠海豚的眼睛位置表明它们具有向前和向下的立体视觉。 淡水海豚的眼睛位置,在喂食时经常侧着或倒着游泳,这表明它们的视觉是立体的向前和向上的。 相比之下,宽吻海豚在水中的视力极为敏锐。 从它观察和跟踪空中飞鱼的方式来看,它显然可以通过气水界面看到相当不错的东西。 尽管初步的实验证据表明它们的空中视力很差,但海豚高高跃起将小鱼从训练者手中夺走的准确性提供了相反的轶事证据。

剑桥雅思4 What Do Whales Feel 翻译-Test 1-Passage 2
dolphins

Such variation can no doubt be explained with reference to the habitats in which individual species have developed. For example, vision is obviously more useful to species inhabiting clear open waters than to those living in turbid rivers and flooded plains. The South American boutu and Chinese beiji, for instance, appear to have very limited vision, and the Indian susus are blind, their eyes reduced to slits that probably allow them to sense only the direction and intensity of light.

毫无疑问,可以用个体物种的栖息地来解释这种变化。例如,视觉对于居住在开阔水域的物种显然比生活在浑浊的河流和泛滥平原中的物种更有用。例如,南美的boutu和中国的beiji似乎视力非常有限,而印度的susus是瞎子,它们的眼睛缩小成狭缝,可能只能让他们感觉到光的方向和强度。

Although the senses of taste and smell appear to have deteriorated, and vision in water appears to be uncertain, such weaknesses are more than compensated for by cetaceans’ well-developed acoustic sense. Most species are highly vocal, although they vary in the range of sounds they produce, and many forage for food using echolocation. Large baleen whales primarily use the lower frequencies and are often limited in their repertoire. Notable exceptions are the nearly song-like choruses of bowhead whales in summer and the complex, haunting utterances of the humpback whales. Toothed species in general employ more of the frequency spectrum, and produce a wider variety of sounds, than baleen species (though the sperm whale apparently produces a monotonous series of high-energy clicks and little else). Some of the more complicated sounds are clearly communicative, although what role they may play in the social life and ‘culture’ of cetaceans has been more the subject of wild speculation than of solid science.

echolocation: the perception of objects by means of sound wave echoes.

尽管味觉和嗅觉似乎已经退化,并且在水中的视力似乎不确定,但鲸类动物发达的听觉足以弥补这些弱点。大多数物种的声音都很响亮,尽管它们发出的声音范围各不相同,而且许多物种使用回声定位来觅食。大型须鲸主要使用较低的频率,并且它们的曲目通常受到限制。值得注意的例外是夏季弓头鲸近乎歌声般的合唱,以及座头鲸复杂而令人难以忘怀的话语。与须鲸物种相比,有齿物种通常使用更多的频谱,并产生更广泛的声音(尽管抹香鲸显然会产生一系列单调的高能咔嗒声,几乎没有其他声音)。一些更复杂的声音显然是可以交流的,尽管它们在鲸目动物的社会生活和“文化”中可能扮演什么角色,更多的是疯狂的猜测而不是坚实的科学。

回声定位:通过声波回声对物体的感知。

剑桥雅思4 What Do Whales Feel 翻译-Test 1-Passage 2
剑桥雅思4 What Do Whales Feel 翻译-Test 1-Passage 2

剑桥雅思4阅读中文翻译导航

  1. 剑桥雅思4阅读中文翻译-Test 1-Passage 1
  2. 剑桥雅思4 What Do Whales Feel 翻译-Test 1-Passage 2
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  6. 剑桥雅思4 Play is a Serious Business 翻译-Test 2-Passage 3
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剑桥雅思4 What Do Whales Feel 翻译-Test 1-Passage 2
剑桥雅思4 What Do Whales Feel 翻译-Test 1-Passage 2

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